Miracles: A Comparison between George Berkeley and Baruch Spinoza


It has long been the position of the Abrahamic faith, and especially Catholicism, that the history of man has seen numerous miracles—divine intervention in the physical world.[1] George Berkeley positions himself in agreement with the claim that God has in fact intervened in ordinary physical series of things, whereas Spinoza rejects this notion, appealing to God’s substantive relationship to Nature. Comparatively, not only does Berkeley provide a strong objection to his own position, but Spinoza’s stance on miracles remains far less susceptible to attack and provides meaningful benefits.

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