Miracles: A Comparison between George Berkeley and Baruch Spinoza


It has long been the position of the Abrahamic faith, and especially Catholicism, that the history of man has seen numerous miracles—divine intervention in the physical world.[1] George Berkeley positions himself in agreement with the claim that God has in fact intervened in ordinary physical series of things, whereas Spinoza rejects this notion, appealing to God’s substantive relationship to Nature. Comparatively, not only does Berkeley provide a strong objection to his own position, but Spinoza’s stance on miracles remains far less susceptible to attack and provides meaningful benefits.

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Spinoza’s Panpsychism: A Supportive Evaluation


In Ethics, Benedict De Spinoza presents the controversial claim that everything has a mind. Also known as panpsychism, Spinoza commits himself to the position that all things are animate, albeit to differing degrees. Upon proper examination of what counts as thinking, as well as the idea of a body, panpsychism presents a compelling and believable view of the world. While objections exist, most rest on faulty, anthropocentric premises of what consciousness must be like.

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Reason in History: An Analysis of Hegel’s Philosophical History

In Hegel’s Reason in History, the task of philosophizing history is undergone. In this paper, I will address three main points. One, that the progress of human history is rational in structure. Two, that history showcases the spread of the Idea of freedom through the action of individuals. Three, that the Idea manifests itself in the state, granting us the highest amount of freedom possible. Finally, I will conclude with my own thoughts on these three claims put forth by Hegel.

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